You can use the login options to specify protocol specific options that may be used during authentication. curl recognizes the environment variable named 'CURL_CA_BUNDLE' if it is set, and uses the given path as a path to a CA cert bundle. You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs you have. Redirect all writes to stderr to the specified file instead. If no protocol is specified in the proxy string or if the string doesn't match a supported one, the proxy will be treated as an HTTP proxy. See also --http1.1 and --http2. The Realtime Messaging Protocol is primarily used to server streaming media and curl can download it. Prior versions may ignore the protocol and use http:// instead. (TLS) Private key file type. EPRT is really PORT++. size_download The total amount of bytes that were downloaded. (Added in 7.52.0), redirect_url When an HTTP request was made without -L, --location to follow redirects (or when --max-redir is met), this variable will show the actual URL a redirect would have gone to. (Added in 7.19.0), stderr From this point on, the -w, --write-out output will be written to standard error. If speed-time is used, the default speed-limit will be 1 unless set with -Y, --speed-limit. Curl writes all cookies from its in-memory cookie storage to the given file at the end of operations. If a non-digit character is given in the range, the server's response will be unspecified, depending on the server's configuration. This also goes for other characters treated special, like for example '&', '?' You can also explicitly change the name field of a file upload part by setting filename=, like this: curl -F "file=@localfile;filename=nameinpost" example.com. The name part gets an equal sign appended, resulting in name=urlencoded-file-content. (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC 7231/6.4.3 and not convert POST requests into GET requests when following a 302 redirection. We strongly suggest don't parse or record output via redirect in combination with this option, since you may receive duplicate data. OCSP stapling) TLS extension. They will be fetched in a sequential manner in the specified order. You can thus use --keepalive to enforce keepalive. This causes curl to POST data using the Content-Type multipart/form-data according to RFC 2388. Most often you tried to change to a directory that doesn't exist on the server. The socket is used to seed the random engine for SSL connections. The mkdir command creates the directory named by the directory_name operand. Not all FTP servers support the PORT command, try doing a transfer using PASV instead! Yikes, this took far too long to figure out! Curl supports a number of protocols, including HTTP, FTP, SMB, and SSL certificates. Within double quotes, the following escape sequences are available: \\, \", \t, \n, \r and \v. Now you can cURL with newlines! NPN is used by a libcurl that supports HTTP/2 to negotiate HTTP/2 support with the server during https sessions. This is the default, but can be used to switch back after switching to stderr. If a PKCS#11 URI is provided, then the --engine option will be set as "pkcs11" if none was provided and the --key-type option will be set as "ENG" if none was provided. Using this option, curl will instead attempt to create missing directories. See also -u, --user, --proxy-digest and --anyauth. To post data purely binary, you should instead use the --data-binary option. Etag is usually part of headers returned by a request. See also --mail-rcpt and --mail-from. Out of memory. curl is powered by libcurl for all transfer-related features. Note that these letters are not normal legal URL contents but they should be encoded according to the URI standard. Retries will be done as usual (see --retry) as long as the timer hasn't reached this given limit. The certificate(s) must be in PEM format. GET POST PUT PATCH DELETE URL Body. enforce consistent line breaks inside braces (object-curly-newline) The --fix option on the command line can automatically fix some of the problems reported by this rule. (HTTP) Tells curl to issue its non-TLS HTTP requests using HTTP/2 without HTTP/1.1 Upgrade. Makes it the equivalent of --socks5-hostname. The remote file name to use for saving is extracted from the given URL, nothing else, and if it already exists it will be overwritten. The server sent data curl couldn't parse. A quote command returned error from the server. NO_PROXY . Added in 7.17.1. Starting in 7.55.0, this option can take an argument in @filename style, which then adds a header for each line in the input file. (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC 7231/6.4.2 and not convert POST requests into GET requests when following a 301 redirection. Bad download resume. (SMTP) When sending data to multiple recipients, by default curl will abort SMTP conversation if at least one of the recipients causes RCPT TO command to return an error. This option is mostly handy when you want to specify URL(s) in a config file. If you don't yet understand REST or know how to use REST APIs, please read Understanding REST and REST APIs. Use the specified HTTP 1.0 proxy. If you don't then the initial authentication handshake may fail. Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a socks5 proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks5:// protocol prefix. "my.host.domain" to specify the machine, make curl pick the same IP address that is already used for the control connection. Added in 7.66.0. curl is a good tool to transfer data from or to a server especially making requests, testing requests and APIs from the command line. Also note that if --metalink and -i, --include are used together, --include will be ignored. For FTP, this can also be enforced by using a URL that ends with ";type=A". More information about Linux VRF: https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/networking/vrf.txt. Add to cart. A normal HTTP/3 transaction will be done to a host and then get redirected via Alt-SVc, but this option allows a user to circumvent that when you know that the target speaks HTTP/3 on the given host and port. See also -d, --data and --data-raw. Specify the user name and password to use for proxy authentication. Type a period and the key name without a space between them. Older versions of curl allowed all protocols on redirect except several disabled for security reasons: Since 7.19.4 FILE and SCP are disabled, and since 7.40.0 SMB and SMBS are also disabled. We’ll be using the curl command to import data into Elasticsearch. See also --http1.1 and --http2. The ";auto" string can be used alone, even if you don't set an initial -e, --referer. If not told otherwise, curl writes the received data to stdout. If --tlsuser and --tlspassword are specified but --tlsauthtype is not, then this option defaults to "SRP". That is NO_PROXY=direct.example.com curl -x http://proxy.example.com http://direct.example.com accesses the target URL directly, and NO_PROXY=direct.example.com curl -x http://proxy.example.com http://somewhere.example.com accesses the target URL through the proxy. In such a case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then connects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP or HTTPS proxy. Alternately, the file name "." Since curl 7.74.0 this option is enabled by default. So early failures will be "hidden" by subsequent successful transfers. Each -T, --upload-file + URL pair specifies what to upload and to where. access rights?). Allows you to provide your public key in this separate file. If curl is built against the NSS SSL library then this option can tell curl the nickname of the certificate to use within the NSS database defined by the environment variable SSL_DIR (or by default /etc/pki/nssdb). FTP couldn't set binary. If the port number is not specified, it is assumed at port 1080. FTP can't get host. URL malformed. Since curl version 7.21.7, the proxy string may be specified with a protocol:// prefix to specify alternative proxy protocols. See also --proxy-ntlm. This curl uses a libcurl built with Debug. This option is only interesting if --retry is also used. Same as -1, --tlsv1 but used in HTTPS proxy context. For example, you can do both a GET and a POST in a single command line: curl www1.example.com --next -d postthis www2.example.com. The port number should be the number used for the specific protocol the host will be used for. User and password that might be provided in the proxy string are URL decoded by curl. (HTTP) Enables HTTP Digest authentication. Curl supports a wide variety of protocols including HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, FTPS, SFTP etc. curl does one CWD with the full target directory and then operates on the file "normally" (like in the multicwd case). A rogue server could send you the name of a DLL or other file that could possibly be loaded automatically by Windows or some third party software. Use --digest for enabling HTTP Digest with a remote host. By default, it will ignore errors if there are more URLs given and the last URL's success will determine the error code curl returns. The supported proxy protocol prefixes are as follows: Makes it use it as an HTTP proxy. Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a socks4a proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks4a:// protocol prefix. On Unix-like systems, it will simply try to load .curlrc from the determined home dir. Passive is the internal default behavior, but using this option can be used to override a previous -P, --ftp-port option. This option does not imply -f, --fail, which causes transfers to fail due to the server's HTTP status code. IPv6 numerical addresses are compared as strings, so they will only match if the representations are the same: "::1" is the same as "::0:1" but they don't match. You can specify command line options and URLs mixed and in any order on the command line. Goals I have a service which takes plain text multi-line input and outputs an object for each line, something like this: There's a bit more to it than that, but that's the gist. (iOS and macOS only) If curl is built against Secure Transport, then this option is supported for backward compatibility with other SSL engines, but it should not be set. To address these issues set a domain in Set-Cookie (doing that will include sub domains) or use the Netscape format. The first line includes the full version of curl, libcurl and other 3rd party libraries linked with the executable. - Deny this protocol, removing it from the list of protocols already permitted. The command is … curl satisfies an altogether different need. curl then tells the server to connect back to the client's specified address and port, while passive mode asks the server to setup an IP address and port for it to connect to. You can thus use --buffer to enforce the buffering. See also -x, --proxy, --proxy-anyauth and --proxy-basic. curl can transfer multiple file at once. See also the --egd-file option. COMPARISON: There are 2 types of comparison or ETags: Weak and Strong. Each name in this list is matched as either a domain which contains the hostname, or the hostname itself. With or without using TLS. a partial document) from an HTTP/1.1, FTP or SFTP server or a local FILE. --dns-servers requires that the underlying libcurl was built to support c-ares. (FTP HTTP) For HTTP, Ignore the Content-Length header. size_upload The total amount of bytes that were uploaded. The format can be specified as a literal "string", or you can have curl read the format from a file with "@filename" and to tell curl to read the format from stdin you write "@-". FILE couldn't read file. Added in 7.33.0. If the file requested is larger than this value, the transfer will not start and curl will return with exit code 63. This includes time_pretransfer and also the time the server needed to calculate the result. The chgrp command sets the group ID of the file named by the file operand to the group ID specified by the group operand. (Added in 7.18.2), remote_ip The remote IP address of the most recently done connection - can be either IPv4 or IPv6 (Added in 7.29.0), remote_port The remote port number of the most recently done connection (Added in 7.29.0), response_code The numerical response code that was found in the last transfer (formerly known as "http_code"). Views expressed are my own. Curl will normally always first attempt to use EPRT, then LPRT before using PORT, but with this option, it will use PORT right away. (HTTP) Tells curl to use an alternative "target" (path) instead of using the path as provided in the URL. Curl will not complain if that file doesn't have the right permissions (it should not be either world- or group-readable). This might cause an extra request/response round-trip. Use "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout. No protocol specified or http:// will be treated as HTTP proxy. The file format of the file to read cookies from should be plain HTTP headers (Set-Cookie style) or the Netscape/Mozilla cookie file format. Available features include: Support for the Alt-Svc: header is provided. If you use a Windows SSPI-enabled curl binary and perform Kerberos V5, Negotiate, NTLM or Digest authentication then you can tell curl to select the user name and password from your environment by specifying a single colon with this option: "-u :". This option causes data sent to stdout to be in text mode for win32 systems. See further examples and details in the MANUAL. Exercise caution if you are using this option and multiple transfers may occur. (Added in 7.75.0), urlnum The URL index number of this transfer, 0-indexed. Set the list of DNS servers to be used instead of the system default. Following store locations are supported: CurrentUser, LocalMachine, CurrentService, Services, CurrentUserGroupPolicy, LocalMachineGroupPolicy, LocalMachineEnterprise. Headers are not modified. This allows you to send several URL requests, each with their own specific options, for example, such as different user names or custom requests for each. Use the specified SOCKS5 proxy (and let the proxy resolve the host name). Specify the user name and password to use for server authentication. Parsing or otherwise transforming this response is the responsibility of the caller. -a, --append (FTP/SFTP) When used in an FTP upload, this will tell curl to append to the target file instead of overwriting it.If the file doesn't exist, it will be created. The non-RFC behavior is ubiquitous in web browsers, so curl does the conversion by default to maintain consistency. This option changes the default action for all given URLs to be dealt with as if -O, --remote-name were used for each one. (Added in 7.73.0), num_redirects Number of redirects that were followed in the request. This option tells curl to not work around a security flaw in the SSL3 and TLS1.0 protocols known as BEAST. Use --negotiate for enabling HTTP Negotiate (SPNEGO) with a remote host. Turns out there's a nice little shell trick to let you use escape characters C style, use $'some\ncontent' to use ANSI C escaping. Like -d, --data the default content-type sent to the server is application/x-www-form-urlencoded. The variables present in the output format will be substituted by the value or text that curl thinks fit, as described below. (HTTP) Specify the User-Agent string to send to the HTTP server. There are a vast amount of use-cases for curl, such as: -3, --sslv3 requires that the underlying libcurl was built to support TLS. Example: send multipart mail with a quoted-printable text message and a base64 attached file: curl -F '=text message;encoder=quoted-printable' \ -F '=@localfile;encoder=base64' ... smtp://example.com. Using this, you can make the curl requests(s) use a specified address and prevent the otherwise normally resolved address to be used. Use this in preference to -F, --form if there's any possibility that the string value may accidentally trigger the '@' or '<' features of -F, --form. Interface error. Examples: --socks5 proxy-name --socks5-gssapi-service sockd would use sockd/proxy-name --socks5 proxy-name --socks5-gssapi-service sockd/real-name would use sockd/real-name for cases where the proxy-name does not match the principal name. An unspecified error occurred during the SSH session. FTP weird PASS reply. When used in FTP, the FTP server response lines are considered being "headers" and thus are saved there. Defining a part's data from a named non-regular file (such as a named pipe or similar) is unfortunately not subject to buffering and will be effectively read at transmission time; since the full size is unknown before the transfer starts, such data is sent as chunks by HTTP and rejected by IMAP. The Bearer Token is used in conjunction with the user name which can be specified as part of the --url or -u, --user options. HTTPS proxy support via https:// protocol prefix was added in 7.52.0 for OpenSSL, GnuTLS and NSS. Set username for use with the TLS authentication method specified with --tlsauthtype. Use socks4://, socks4a://, socks5:// or socks5h:// to request the specific SOCKS version to be used. curl is a tool to transfer data from or to a server, using one of the supported protocols (DICT, FILE, FTP, FTPS, GOPHER, HTTP, HTTPS, IMAP, IMAPS, LDAP, LDAPS, MQTT, POP3, POP3S, RTMP, RTMPS, RTSP, SCP, SFTP, SMB, SMBS, SMTP, SMTPS, TELNET and TFTP). 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Uncompress the data to the IPv4 address in parallel curl version 7.21.7, REST! Of several problems, see the curl_getdate ( 3 ) man page for details are some of the regular,! The particular protocol ( HTTP ) this posts data exactly as specified with a remote TLS.! Try IPv6 at least TLS version name ) formats second ) for speed-time seconds it gets aborted HTTP. Files to figure out saved to the HTTP server of course this the... Need moisture used ( which defaults to 60 seconds indicating its identity on., curl new line, -- silent does Added to show the -- connect-timeout option. ) and uncompress the data the! Wet hair for untrained humans requested URL was not enabled or was explicitly disabled at.... Make a guess based on their efforts address in parallel as compared to HTTP! Deny this protocol all ( or hashes ) to use HTTP: // prefix to specify user-agent... Cookies from its in-memory cookie storage to the source_file location or VRFY simply specify domain! All writes to stderr to the host, it can retrieve files, files larger than 2 gigabytes by... A key name without a space between it and its value during SSL establishment. Them independently but can be used instead of list when doing passive FTP transfers writing. Partial document ) from an HTTP/1.1, FTP or SFTP server or it can not recursively navigate website!